Espresso is the core, classic espresso drinks such as flat white, latte, long black, cappuccino. In which, espresso brewed by forcing a small amount of nearly boiling water under pressure through finely ground coffee beans.
A standard flat white involves a single or double shot of espresso, a generous pour of silky steamed milk, and a thin layer of microfoam.
A typical latte is made with one shot of espresso, pour with silky steamed milk and topped with milk foam for both flavor and presentation.
You can ask for a long black if you are looking for an Americano. A double shot espresso poured into hot water is about as close to drip coffee as it gets.
It just simply a single shot of espresso.
Long macchiato is where it gets a little complicated, due to difference baristas got different approach, mainly in two types as follows:
Type A: A double shot espresso with a dash of milk foam.
Type B: A double shot espresso poured with hot water with a dash of milk foam.
A short macchiato is understood as a single shot of espresso with a dash of milk foam.
A single shot of espresso, steamed milk with a heavy layer of milk foam with a thin layer of cocoa powder.
Half the extraction period as a normal espresso, hence, a shot stopped around 13 to 15 seconds into its pull rather than the typical 27 to 30 seconds of a standard espresso.